Walrus Features and Habitat
The inhabitant of the harsh climate of the Arctic - walrus has become a household name, because most of the time he spends in ice water to get his own food. In order to survive in such difficult conditions, this animal must have huge energy resources.
And he has these resources: walruses sea animals possessing impressive sizes - the length of an adult male can reach 5 meters, and weight up to 1.5 tons, females are a little smaller - length up to 3 m, and weight 800 - 900 kg.
Another feature that catches your eye when looking at photo of an animal walrus apart from its size, these are the huge protruding fangs that it possesses.
From the small head, relative to the body, two powerful tusks emerge down, which can reach 80 cm, the animal needs them not only for defense, often disputes arise between males and clash, but also for obtaining food from the bottom. With their help, walrus can climb ice floes.
The fat layer of this animal is about 15 cm, and the proportion of fat from the entire body mass reaches up to 25%. Walrus is a mammal animal and warm-blooded, so when he is in the water for a long time, blood flows from the surface of the skin, and his body becomes light.
Then, when the walrus gets to the surface, the blood again rushes to the upper layer of the skin, and the body acquires the same brownish tint. Young individuals have a small coat, which disappears as they grow older.
Walruses are animals of the Arctic - they live along the entire coast of the Arctic Ocean and on the islands adjacent to it. Their populations also live in Greenland, on the Svalbard archipelago, in the Red Sea, Iceland.
In the summer, large walrus populations gather in the Bristol Bay, but the most comfortable conditions for them are in the Bottfort Sea in Alaska, but since walruses are migratory animals, they can also be found on the northern coast of eastern Siberia.
Walrus character and lifestyle
Walrus animal inherently non-aggressive, they gather in groups of 20-30 individuals, and only during the breeding season do the largest males appear in the pack, which take on a dominant role.
On the rookeries, which may suit northern animals walruses, several thousand individuals gather. While on vacation, females look after babies, males sort out relationships.
Those animals that are on the edges of the rookery play the role of sentinels, having noticed any threat from far away, they notify their brethren of an imminent danger with a loud moat. Hearing the alarm, the whole herd rushes into the water, with a strong crush, the young can suffer, so the females cover them with their bodies.
Listen to the voice of the walrus //givotniymir.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/11dd9c18211973.mp3
One way to feed a polar bear is animals walrus, seal and other inhabitants of the north. In rare cases, the bear resorts to walrus hunting, since in the water it cannot cope with it, and on land its prey is weakened animals or cubs killed during crush.
The bear will not confront the adult healthy individual, for it there is easier prey among seals, seals. In water, the only opponents of walruses are killer whales, they are larger than walruses and have sharp teeth. Escaping from killer whales, walruses have to get out to land.
Since the walrus lives in coastal waters, there it finds its livelihood, it swims to a depth of 50 m, and is maximally able to dive to 80 m. Most of its diet is made up of mollusks, crustaceans and worms.
With his huge fangs, he plows a beard at the bottom, thereby lifting up the shells of mollusks, then fins them to separate the shells from the "filling", the fragments of the shells are heavier and sink to the bottom.
In order to be satisfied with the walrus, you need 50 kg of shellfish per day, he does not like fish, and resorts to it when there is no other food. The largest males can hunt seals, seals, narwhals - they are considered dangerous predators and can attack humans. Having tried the meat, the walrus will continue to look for it, the northern nationalities call these - Kelucham.
Reproduction and longevity
Breeding walrus animals of the Red Book of Russia occurs not often, puberty comes to 6 years. Mating takes place from April to May, at which time males fight for females.
The female often gives birth to one cub, at least two, this can happen every 4 years. Pregnancy lasts up to 360 days, a newborn weighs 30 kg and feeds on mother's milk for up to 1 year.
The female protects the offspring up to 3 years, until their fangs begin to grow with which they themselves can get their own food. At the age of 2 years, he can already eat various foods, but also continues to drink mother's milk. Life span Arctic walrus animals is 30 years old, of which 20 years they grow. The maximum age is known - 35 years.
The population of all walruses on the planet is only 250 thousand, and the Laptev species listed in the Red Book totals only 20 thousand individuals. This situation became possible due to fishing.
Mostly they were hunted from their fangs, from which arms and various handicrafts were made. Local peoples used skins and meat. At present, commercial hunting and commercial fishing are prohibited throughout the world, only those old-fashioned for which it is a way of life are allowed to hunt.
These include the Chukchi, Eskimos, etc., they eat walrus meat, use fat for lighting, fangs for crafts as part of folklore. Global climate changes have also influenced the walrus population; due to warming, the thickness of pack ice has decreased, where walruses settle their rookeries.
Pack ice is a desalinated drift ice that has conducted a two-year defrost freezing cycle. As a result of the melting of these ice, the distance between the “rest zone” and the place of food was increased, so the cubs have to wait longer for their mothers, which subsequently reduces their reproductive function.
This is confirmed by the fact that walrus remains were found on the coast near San Francisco, their age is almost 30 thousand years, which indicates that they were earlier spread south.